how exhausted I am. you can’t imagine how i’d love to be in bed right now.
and there is no reason I am not!
yesterday in a fit of stupidity I posted in my lovejourney for people to give me their addresses and i’d send them postcards. since then i’ve received 38 addresses. ok? i’m stupid. i’ll still send them, and to anyone else who gives me an address. I plan to go postcard shopping tomorrow.
okay! this morning I memorised my last lecture: suspect interviewing. want to hear it? ‘course you do.
inbau, reid and buckley’s 9 step approach to getting suspects to talk:
- positive confrontation (accuse, outline evidence).
- theme development (if the suspect is emotional, build rapport and minimise the seriousness of the offence/consequences. if the suspect is unemotional, intimidate and emphasise/make up evidence).
- handle denials and objections (interrupt them, restate evidence).
- retain suspect’s attention (move closer, touch, use first name).
- handle suspect’s mood (sympathise, create an air of remorse).
- create an opportunity to confess (give reasons s/he could have done it, “was it your idea?” etc).
- oral confession (obtain details with closed questioning).
- convert oral to written confession.
(if you’re thinking hey! there are only 8! handle denials and handle objections are actually two separate steps. I condense them.)
social psychological explanation (azjen and madden, 1986) – someone’s attitudes towards confession are based on their perceptions of the positive and negative consequences of confessing, thus minimise the negative and enhance the positive.
problems with the 9 step approach – immoral/illegal, may lead to false confession, inspires resentment towards police, encourages officers to lie in other situations, may have rebound effect (less likely to confess).
techniques to encourage confession – intimidation, situational futility (no-win situation, may as well confess), discomfort and relief, bluffing, gentle prodding, minimisation, pointing out inconsistencies in story, finding a lie and generalising it, expanding chinks in defence, self disclosure, pointing out deception cues (you seem awfully nervous, is it ’cause YOU’RE GUILTY?), concern/sympathy (I would’ve done the same), silence.
moston, stephenson and williamson (1992) – found that police interviews had little impact on likelihood of suspect confessing. severity of offence and legal advice had major impact.
gudjonnson and petursson (1991) – three categories of confession. internalised pressure, externalised pressure, proof.
gudjonnson (1992) – three forms of false confession. voluntary (honest belief in own guilt, to protect actual perpetrator, to impress, for attention, to cover up some other activity, illegal or not). coerced-compliant (due to the nature of the police interview – intimidation, particularly vulnerable suspects, ie: learning disabled “cop said ‘if you confess we can all go home,’ I thought he meant me, too”). coerced-internalised (comes to believe in own guilt. ie: drunk/blacked out & is not sure of innocence, demon possession, “cops say I did it, they have evidence, I must have done it”).
there is much more, but I think that is enough, particularly since the exam is over and I needn’t remember it anymore.
I had to talk to a girl from that class all the way home on the bus. it was excruciating.
Buddha’s deformed claw is blood red and swollen. it is very strange. I should photograph it. I plan to take him to the vett tomorrow. Sarah bathed him. don’t bath cats! she was severely scratched. good.